Promotion of Transport Walkingand Cycling in Europe

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The European Network for the Promotion of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity
Promotion of Transport Walking
and Cycling in Europe:
Strategy Directions
The HEPA Network is financially supported by the European Commission

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Postal Address: The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research
P.O. Box 30
FIN-33501 Tampere, Finland
Tel: 358 3 282 9111
Fax: 358 3 282 9200
Notice to readers:
The Views contained in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect
the opinion or position of the European Commission. Neither the European Commission nor
any person acting on its behalf is liable for any use made of the following information.
This report was produced with financial support from the European Commission.
ISSBN 951-9101-34-9
Copyright  2000 UKK Institute. All rights reserved.
This document may be freely reviewed. Abstracted, reproduced and translated, in part or in
whole, provided that its content is not modified in any way, that no change is made for the
content in any form and that due acknowledgement is given to the source.

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Strategy Directions
Written by Pekka Oja, PhD and Ilkka Vuori MD
The UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, Finland

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This work is part of the activities of the European Network for the Promotion
of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity. The Network is financially supported
by the European Commission. The draft text was approved by the network
meeting held in Tampere, on 12-14 November 1999.
We are grateful to the following people who made personal
contributions to the development of this document:
Nick Cavill and Hugo Crombie
Health Education Authority, England
Peter Wolfhagen and Mariken Leurs
Netherlands Olympic Committee*Netherlands
Sports Confederation,
The Netherlands
Lauri Virrankoski
Traffic League, Finland
Matti Järvi
City of Tampere, Finland

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Executive summary ....................................................................... 4
Foreword ...................................................................................... 7
1. CONTEXT .............................................................................. 8
2. ISSUES INVOLVED............................................................. 10
3. IDENTIFYING STRATEGIC OBJECTIVES ...................... 12
4. DEFINING TARGETS ......................................................... 14
5. ESTABLISHING CONSENSUS .......................................... 16
6. TAKING ACTION................................................................ 17
7. OBTAINING FUNDING .................................................... 21
8. ADVOCACY AND LOBBYING........................................... 22
9. MONITORING AND EVALUATION ................................ 22
References ................................................................................... 23
APPENDIX 1............................................................................. 24
APPENDIX 2............................................................................. 27

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Executive summary
This document is a follow-up of the
European Charter on Transport, Environ-
ment and Health put forward by WHO
Europe and the European Commission in
1999. The Charter states, based on
scientific evidence, that physically active
forms of transport, such as walking and
cycling, offer significant health gains
through the reduction of the ill effects of
motorised transport and the utilisation of
the health benefits of increased physical
activity, and that strategies to design and
engineer a modal shift from motorised to
physically active transport should be
effectively pursued.
The European Network for the Promo-
tion of Health-Enhancing Physical
Activity, as one of the European Com-
mission´s Health Promotion Networks,
has taken the task of furthering the
Charter´s principles into strategic
directions for the promotion of physically
active transport. Thus the purpose of this
document is to identify strategic direc-
tions that the member states can use in
defining their own strategies and actions
for the national promotion of transport
walking and cycling.
The nature of transport walking and
cycling in terms of frequency, duration
and intensity suggests that, in principle,
such activity can contribute significantly
to people´s health-enhancing physical
activity. On the other hand, the current
practices of such activities are sufficient
for health gains in only a few EU
countries, and very minimal in most, and
in particular in the southern Member
States. Furthermore, the trends in
physically active transport indicate a
rather dramatic decline over the past few
Knowledge of the health potential of
active transport, factors influencing the
choice of the transport mode and attitudes
among many European populations, as
well as increasing experiences of local,
regional and even some national
promotional efforts, suggest that
physically active transport can be
substantially increased by appropriate
policies, strategies and actions. Therefore,
the development of target-oriented
national strategies is justified.

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A major issue affecting such development
is the overwhelming and increasing role of
car culture in the transport scene. The car
is the first choice of transport for many
people and for many reasons. This culture
sets many obstacles for the promotion of
walking and cycling. Their social status is
low as compared to driving a car, and the
physical environment is often non-
conducive, if not hostile, for walking and
cycling. These obstacles need to be
overcome in order to make real progress
towards more active transport.
One key strategic objective in the promo-
tion of physically active transport is to
make walking and cycling contribute
towards sustainable transport. Together
with public transport it constitutes an
essential element for energy-efficient, low
resource-consuming means of transport. It
also contributes to the reduction of
congestion and pollution, the enhance-
ment of the local environment, the
improvement of quality of life, increased
accessibility, injury prevention and social
equity. Urban design, land use planning
and traffic planning are critical in ensuring
an environment conducive to sustainable
Another fundamental strategic objective is
to achieve a modal shift from car driving
to walking and cycling. A substantial shift
requires reduction in car dependence and
acceptance of user-pays-the-cost policy. A
reduction in the need to travel by car can
be effectively achieved by proper urban
design and land use planning for short and
accessible connections to trip generator
locations, and by comprehensive public
transport with effective linkage to walking
and cycling.
Effective strategy includes well-defined
targets. It is advisable to set them in
quantitative, measurable terms that
correspond to political will and available
conditions. Headline targets can include
defined increases in the proportion of
walking and cycling trips of all journeys
within a given time period. Supplemen-
tary targets may include quantitative
increases in walking and cycling according
to journey distances, journey purposes,
infrastructure, facilities and promotion.

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Comprehensive strategic planning and
implementation requires active collabo-
ration and partnership between several
parties and their consensus on key issues
and roles. The main actors are the health,
education, sports, transport and land use
authorities. Other important collaborators
include the traffic safety authorities,
transport operators, the health care
industry, the cycle industry as well as
various voluntary and consumer organis-
ations promoting exercise, sports,
recreational activities and sustainable
Creating a pro-walking and cycling culture
is one of two main action areas for
implementing the defined strategies and
objectives. To obtain a significant level of
growth in walking and cycling requires an
acceptance of walking and cycling as
desirable transport modes among the
public, professionals and the transport
providers. Well-planned communication
programmes with clearly identified
messages, target groups and delivery
channels, incentives and regulatory and
legal measures are important means in
establishing such a culture.
Promoting walking and cycling without
the provision of proper environment,
conditions and facilities may turn futile.
Effective interventions include land use
and transport planning, traffic calming and
speed reduction, highway design and
transport engineering with foot and cycle
paths and networks, linkage of public
transport with walking and cycling, cycle
parking, traffic signals and signs, road
lighting and other conditions and vehicle
design. A comprehensive walking and
cycling audit ensures the consideration of
the needs of pedestrians and cyclists in all
relevant development schemes.
In order to develop and maintain pro-
walking and cycling infrastructure,
considerable funding from national and
local transport authorities is required.
A fixed proportion of their total annual
budget for the infrastructure would ensure
the realisation of the set strategies and
targets. Further funding can be obtained
from other collaborators through mutual
ownership of the strategic plan.
Persistent advocacy and lobbying by the
principal acting parties will ensure the
necessary collaboration, partnership and
ownership for effective networking.
Political sensitivity, understanding of
media power, broad cultural penetration
and evidence support are important
elements in this work.
It is imperative to integrate monitoring
and evaluation in the walking and cycling
strategy. They provide the necessary
evidence to assess the efficacy, cost-
effectiveness and feasibility of the adopted
strategies and actions.

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Our health is a product of many
factors. Some we can influence,
like our behaviour, and some we
cannot, like our genetic make-up. The
environment is a major determinant of
health. It belongs, at least partly, to those
factors that are influenced by us.
Unfortunately, the way we have allowed
our environment to develop is not always
positive for our health. All Europeans, and
especially the urban dwellers, experience
this every day: air pollution, noise,
congestion, accidents – mostly produced
by the traffic.
We can make a change. Instead of driving
a car, we can walk or ride a bike. If
enough of us break the old habit, the air
will get cleaner, noise and congestion will
diminish, and fewer accidents will happen,
not immediately, but inevitably in the
long run. And using our own engine by
walking and cycling enhances our health.
It is health promotion at its best.
In many European cities, fine practical
measures have demonstrated that this can
be done with simple, inexpensive and
friendly measures. Moreover, some far-
sighted countries are already implementing
this health potential in their national
health policies. This example of good
practice should be widely disseminated
and put into practice Europe-wide. There
is assistance available for taking the first
step in this direction. The European
Network for the Promotion of Health-
Enhancing Physical Activity, one of the
European Commissions seven health
promotion networks, has taken the
promotion of transport walking and
cycling as one of its top priorities. As a
result of this work, the present guidebook
in your hand provides strategic directions
for the European countries to develop
country-wide strategies to promote public
health by increasing transport walking and
cycling. The guidelines build on the
encouraging and increasing local, regional
and national experiences gained in several
countries. They are intended to stimulate
national action in the right direction,
rather than suggesting ready-made recipes.
I hope that this initiative will find fertile
ground to take forward the development
in this important field – important for
health and important for the environment
– in whole Europe. It would certainly be
fully in line with the health promotion
strategies of the European Commission.
Matti Rajala
Head of Unit
Health Promotion, Health Monitoring
and Injury Prevention
European Commission

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HEALTH (WHO Europe 1999),
approved by the Ministers and representa-
tives of the European Member States of
WHO and members of the European
Commission (EU) responsible for
transport, environment and health in
London, 16-18 June 1999, prioritises the
following health-related issues linked with
Links between
transport and health
• traffic accidents are a major cause of
death and serious injury;
• road transport is a major contributor
to human exposure to air pollution
with a link to respiratory and
cardiovascular diseases;
• people are exposed to increasing levels
of traffic noise (e.g. loss of sleep);
• physically active forms of transport
offer significant positive health effects;
• heavy road traffic can divide
communities and reduce social
• vulnerable groups are affected more by
traffic – particularly people with
disabilities, older people, the socially
excluded, children and young people,
people living/working in areas of high
air pollution and noise.
The Charter identifies the key principles
by which transport and health can be
unified, broad objectives for integrated
policies and an action plan for member
states. It is a commitment by the member
states to make transport sustainable to
health and the environment. One of the

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key elements in the proposed action plan
is to promote modes of transport, such as
public transport and cycling and walking,
and land use planning, which have the best
public health impacts.
Need to increase
physically active transport
The Charter states: “Forms of transport
that entail physical activity, like cycling
and walking, separately or in conjunction
with public transport, offer significant
health gains; however, these transport
modes have often been overlooked in
planning and decision-making”.
This statement is based on scientific
evidence indicating that public and non-
motorised forms of transport offer oppor-
tunities for regular physical activity to be
integrated into daily life at minimal cost
for a large segment of the population.
Modal shifts to physically active transport
are likely to bring major benefits to public
health, the environment and quality of life
and are likely to decrease congestion.
Strategies designed to engineer such a shift
should be energetically pursued, especially
in urban and suburban areas, and their
effects monitored and evaluated. (Dora C
& Phillips M 1999).
Purpose of the
strategy directions
The European Network for the Promotion
of Health-Enhancing Physical Activity is
one of the European Commission’s Health
Promotion Networks. It aims, among
other things, at promoting and facilitating
the development of national health-
enhancing physical activity (HEPA)
policies in the EU Member States. As part
of this task, the HEPA Network has
participated in providing the evidence on
the health significance of walking and
cycling (Vuori I & Oja P 1999) for the
This document sets out strategy direc-
tions, based on the CHARTER, that can
be used for promoting physically active
transport. The purpose of these directions
is to identify strategic objectives and
actions the member states can use when
designing national strategies and actions
for the promotion of health-enhancing
walking and cycling as part of their overall
HEPA policies.

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2.1. Health potential of
transport walking and
Accumulating and reliable scientific
evidence shows that the highly
prevalent and increasing
sedentariness causes a great and increasing
burden on the health of populations and
that physical activity has significant
health-enhancing effects (US Department
of Health and Human Services 1996). The
available evidence indicates that a
substantial, if not major, part of the health
benefits can be attained by many common
activities, such as walking and cycling,
that take place frequently and are
moderate in terms of the required effort
and time. A few available studies support
the idea that walking and especially cycling
as practised as a means of transport can
result in functional and health benefits
among sedentary populations.
The current transport patterns in EU
countries (WALCYNG 1998) show that
car use is by far the dominant transport
mode accounting for 50 to 70% of all
road trips. The majority of short trips of
up to 5 km are also made by car. Two to
four trips out of ten are made by bicycle
or on foot. Car use has steadily increased
during the past decades at the expense of
other transport modes, including walking
and cycling. Some data suggest that active
transport has halved during the last 20
Current surveys in EU countires
(WALCYNG 1998) indicate that the
average distance of walking trips is about
2 km and that for cycling 3-4 km. The
number of weekly walking trips averages
from about three to almost six. Cycling
trips are frequent in countries with a rich
bicycle culture, such as the Netherlands
(on average one daily trip) and Denmark
(every other day), but much less in all
other EU countries. These data suggest
that while the current walking and cycling
patterns fall mostly short of the criteria for
HEPA, increasing practice of short trips
by walking and cycling could contribute
substantially to health-enhancing daily
Knowledge of the distribution of the
length of the journeys, factors influencing
the choice of the mode of transport, and
attitudes among the population suggest
that physically active transport can be
substantially increased by appropriate
policies, strategies and measures. The
validity of this rationale has been clearly
demonstrated by several projects and
programmes aiming at increasing
physically active transport (see box p. 11).
Simultaneously, the number of traffic
accidents involving vulnerable road users
has decreased. If similar development took
place on a larger scale, the direct and
indirect benefits to individual, community
and population health and well-being are
likely to be substantial.

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2.2. Car culture
Car culture is increasingly taking over the
transport scene. The car is the first choice
of transport for many people for many
reasons. In this prevailing culture there are
many obstacles, real and perceived, for
walking and cycling.
There is a lack of safe, convenient and
pleasant places to walk and cycle because
the needs of motor traffic dominate land
use, transport infrastructure and traffic
regulations. Integration of walking and
cycling with public transport is poorly
developed. The danger of accidents to
walkers and cyclists from motorised road
users is a real one. Facilities supporting
cycle use such as quality parking and
transport of cycles in public transport
vehicles are also insufficient.
The social status of walking and cycling is
low in comparison to driving a car.
Perceived long distances, bad weather, hilly
roads, hard work, theft and violence
prevent many from walking and cycling
even if the travel distances were suitable
and routes were available for walking and
Successful schemes to increase cycle use in European Cities
(Cyclists’ Touring Club 1995)
% of
Main traffic
in cycle
by cycle
(city centre)
(over time)
172 000
8 -16 %
- tram priority
- traffic restraint
- cycle network (city-wide)
240 000
7 - 14 %
- pedestrian measures
- parking reduction
- traffic calming
- cycle parking & cycling
Hannover 550 000
9 - 16 %
- land use
- traffic calming
- cycle routes (450 km)
- car parking control
280 000
29 - 43 %
-quality cycle routes
- links to public transport
- traffic calming
80 000
40 - 43%
- compact land use
(1982 - 85)
- traffic cells
- complete cycle network

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3.1. Walking and cycling
contribute to sustainable
Walking and cycling must be
seen as part of sustainable
transport strategy. Along with
public transport they constitute an
essential element for energy-efficient, low
resource-consuming means of transport.
Walking and cycling can contribute to a
wide range of sustainability benefits,
including reduction of congestion and
pollution, enhancement of the local
environment, the improvement of quality
of life, increased access opportunities and
injury prevention. They can also be a more
equitable mode of transport by being
more affordable to a larger cross-section of
Urban design and land use and traffic
planning are key elements in ensuring that
journeys are possible on foot and by
bicycle. Urban design has a critical role in
providing an environment in which
healthy transport choices are possible.
Design measures can also reduce traffic
speeds to encourage walking and cycling.
Land use planning can reduce the need to
travel in general, and by car in particular.
Good traffic planning can make these
modes desirable by providing convenient
and safe access to schools, jobs, facilities,
services, hobbies, entertainment, etc.
3.2. Modal shift from car
to walking and cycling
The key prerequisite for sustainable travel
patterns is the creation of an environment
in which walking and cycling are made
more attractive than using private motor
vehicles. This modal shift from using an
external engine to one’s own engine for
travel provides benefits for the individual,
for communities and for businesses.

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To secure the benefits of a significant
increase in walking and cycling, changes
are required which reflect the full cost of,
and reduce dependence on, the car. This
can be done by:
• ensuring that the full external costs of
the car, including the use of it, are paid
by the user;
• using urban design and land use
planning effectively to reduce the need
to travel by car and to shorten the
lengths of the trips;
• giving high priority to local
accessibility in location decisions for
jobs, shopping, education, health,
leisure and other public and private
• having comprehensive, co-ordinated,
safe and reliable public transport;
• ensuring that transport planners and
public transport operators enable
walking and especially cycling to be
combined with the use of public
transport by providing cycle parking
facilities at transport interchanges and
cycle transport in public transport
The experience in implementing the
Dutch Bicycle Master Plan (Directorate-
General for Passenger Transport 1999)
yielded a lack of understanding of how,
why and when car users would switch
mode for short journeys. Thus, there is a
need for research to provide an in-depth
analysis of the transport mode-related
behaviour of car users.
The strategic goals of the Dutch Bicycle
Master Plan present a good example of
goal setting. They are presented in
Appendix 1.

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The strategic targets should be
defined in quantitative, measurable
terms that correspond to the
political will and the possibilities of the
respective country. It is advisable to set
both primary and supplementary targets.
It is inevitable that the targets should be
different for those countries that have
already advanced in integrating the
promotion of walking and cycling into
their transport policies and for those that
have not taken such steps for cultural,
environmental or other reasons.
Guidelines and possibilities for target
setting include:
4.1. Headline targets
Increase in walking:
• increase the number of walking trips
by a defined percentage of all journeys
within a given time period.
Increase in cycling:
• increase the number of cycling trips by
a defined percentage within a given
time period.

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4.2. Supplementary
Journey distances:
• increase the number of walking trips of
short distances of under 3 km by a
defined percentage within a given time
Journey purposes:
• increase the proportion of walking and
cycling for work commuting by a
defined percentage within a given time
• increase the proportion of walking and
cycling for school commuting by a
defined percentage within a given time
• increase the number of combined
public transport and cycling trips by a
defined percentage within a given time
• increase the percentage of the local
road network where speeds are limited
to e.g. less than 30 km/h;
• increase the local on-road cycle/
pedestrian network by a defined
number of km;
• increase the provision of walking and
cycle ways to schools by a defined
number of km;
• upgrade the maintenance priority,
including lighting, of cycle/pedestrian
ways (to meet specified target criteria).
• increase the number of adequate cycle
parking facilities at travel interchanges,
in public sites and by major employers;
• increase the provision of shower and
locker facilities at public and major
private work sites.
• provide sufficient pedestrian and
cycling education, including personal
safety, in schools and for the general
The target setting of the Dutch Bicycle
Master Plan (Directorate-General for
Passenger Transport 1999) is given as an
example in Appendix 1.
The UK Government targets for health
improvement and sustainable transport
(Health Education Authority 1999) are
given in Appendix 2.

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Comprehensive strategic planning
and implementation thereof of
walking and cycling transport
requires active collaboration, and
eventually a consensus, between a number
of parties. The key collaborators in
developing local plans are the authorities
responsible for health, education, sports,
transport and land use. Other important
collaborators are transport operators, the
cycle industry, the health care industry and
the traffic safety authorities, including the
police. Voluntary and consumer
organisations promoting exercise, sports,
recreational activities and sustainable
transport and environment are also
important contributors in developing and
carrying out an effective strategic plan.
The Dutch experience (Directorate-
General for Passenger Transport 1999)
suggested that the government’s role is
initially to be a catalyst. Other lessons
learned indicated a lack of understanding
from bus and rail operators, lack of
meaningful input from the cycle industry,
and a lack of enthusiasm from the police
to tackle cycle thefts. It was also learned
that closer contact with urban developers
was needed.

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The strategic measures for the
development of walking and
cycling fall into two broad areas:
creating a pro-walking and cycling culture
and improving infrastructure.
6.1. Creating a pro-
walking and cycling
To obtain a significant level of growth in
walking and cycling will not only require
local improvements in conditions and
facilities but also an acceptance of walking
and cycling as desirable transport modes
among the public, professionals and the
transport providers. They need to be
convinced that more walking and cycling is
a practical transport option offering
desirable community and personal benefits.
Communication programmes, incentives
and regulatory and legal measures are
important methods in establishing pro-
walking and cycling culture.
6.1.1. Communication
The communication strategy may be built
on theoretical models that have been used
successfully in health promotion. The
Social Marketing theory has proved
popular in recent national HEPA
promotion programmes (Foster C. 2000).
Effective communication campaigns need
parallel changes in the social and physical
Communication messages should focus on
promoting alternatives to the car-
dependent lifestyle and minimising car
dependency. They should highlight the
advantages of walking and cycling
compared to other means of transport.
Such characteristics include the facts that
they are omission-free, energy efficient,
healthy, cost effective, quick, and have low
space requirement. The commonly
perceived obstacles, e.g. suburban lifestyle,
dispersed land use, need to drive children
to school and leisure services, declining
public transport, insecurity and danger,
and bad weather and hilly roads, should be
weighted against the advantages of walking
and cycling.
In order to have facts and arguments
penetrate effectively, they need to be
repeated frequently, in different ways and
via numerous channels.
Target groups
The campaign target groups are road users,
transport providers, professionals and
journey generators.

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Road users include the key groups of
motorists, commercial and public
transport drivers, cyclists and pedestrians.
They shape the transport environment
into which the potential walkers and
cyclists must consider venturing on foot or
by cycle. All groups must understand and
accept their rights and responsibilities
towards other road users. Motorists are to
understand the impact of excess speed and
of giving insufficient space to pedestrians
and cyclists while the latter must
acknowledge the negative consequences of
poor traffic behaviour. Proactive attitudes
towards personal safety when cycling,
including helmet use and other protective
measures, should be emphasised.
The main groups of direct transport
providers are the Ministry of Transport,
municipalities, and public transport
operators, companies and organisations.
Intermediary providers include interest
groups, regional transport authorities and
transport consultants. It is important that
these groups understand and comprehend
the environmental and health significance
of shifting the prevailing dominance of car
culture towards pro-walking and cycling
culture, and that they contribute in their
capacity towards the strategic goals.
Professionals in transport, environment
and health fields are key players in the
forming of a more favourable social culture
for walking and cycling. The information
indicating the need and evidence for modal
shift, and the strategic and practical
measures to achieve it, are to be included
in their basic and continuing education.
Journey generators can play a powerful role
in developing a pro-walking and cycling
culture. The major generators are work
sites, shops, educational institutions,
health and social service providers, and
leisure service providers. They should
consider the needs of pedestrians and
cyclists and provide their support to meet
Delivery organisation
In delivering the communication
campaign, all concerned parties should
join forces for concerted action. Local
expertise should be identified and with the
support of national and regional author-
ities a local communication strategy
should be designed. Walking and cycling
interest groups may play an important role
in initiating and implementing such a
The communication messages to different
target groups in the Dutch Bicycle Master
Plan (Directorate-General for Passenger
Transport 1999) are described in
Appendix 1.
6.1.2. Incentives
Incentives aim at making walking and
cycling more competitive transport modes
compared to the car. Possible successful
incentives for cycle use include tax
benefits, health insurance benefits, salary
bonuses, other material rewards, and free
bicycles. More appropriate incentives to
be used in different cultures and environ-
ments are to be developed through
research and experimentation.
6.1.3. Regulatory
and legal measures
In addition to informational communi-
cation campaigns and incentives, regulat-
ory and legal measures are important
“hard” methods to create a more favour-
able social climate for walking and cycling.
Experiences in reducing and containing
tobacco smoking by strict legal regulations

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indicate the potential impact of such
measures. Successful options with regard
to promoting transport walking and
cycling include taxation of work
commuting by car, promotion of work
site-specific travel policies, car parking
regulations in public areas and venues and
through building codes.
6.2. Improving the
transport infrastructure
Promoting walking and cycling without
improving the facilities for their use is
meaningless. The following are examples of
effective environmental interventions:
Land use and
transport planning
• Encourage multiple use development in
urban planning where possible.
• Encourage development patterns and
the location of developments which
ensure that short trips to work, places
of education, and local facilities can be
made on foot or by bicycle.
• Incorporate pedestrians and cyclists
safely in traffic schemes; they should
not be considered as separate road
• Avoid unsegregated shared use of space
for pedestrians and cyclists, particularly
in a dense urban context.
• Link foot and cycle paths to public
• Facilitate transport of bicycles by
public transport.
• Restrict car parking provision.
Speed reduction
• Use traffic calming measures to their
fullest in pedestrian and cycling areas.
• Use the 30 km/h maximum speed limit
in all existing and potential areas dense
with pedestrians and walkers.
Highway design and
transport engineering
• Ensure that changes to the highway
infrastructure or new developments do
not sever existing or proposed
pedestrian/cycle routes, and do not
reduce accessibility or increase
perceived or real danger for pedestrians
and cyclists.
• Improve pedestrians’ and cyclists’ safety
and give them improved priority in
terms of access and journey time.
• Establish best practice design and
construction standards in all highway
improvements which incorporate on-
road walking and cycling facilities and
route networks.
• Ensure that highway schemes that do
not include specific walking and
cycling facilities are designed to
minimise deterrents to walking and
• Avoid deterring people from walking
and cycling by longer, less convenient
and less secure routes when building
safety improvements such as pedestrian
and cycling barriers and bridges and
• Modify traffic rules to give priority to
pedestrians and cyclists in motor traffic
Walking and
cycling networks
• Prepare a specific proposal for a
hierarchy of on- and off-road walking
and cycling routes to form a safe,
coherent, continuous and convenient
network across major trip generators
such as large shopping centres, major
job, education and leisure facilities and
public interchanges.
• Take into account the type of user
group most likely to make increased
use of them in the design and
prioritising of pedestrian and cycling

Page 22
network with particular emphasis on
the needs of commuters to workplaces,
schools and public transport
interchanges with short trip distances.
• The walking and cycling network
should provide:
- on-road alternatives to main radial/
orbital roads;
- off-road alternatives to main radial/
orbital roads whenever possible;
- local area networks of shorter roads
from residential areas to local trip
- links to nearby countryside
recreational areas.
Public transport
• Encourage multi-modal journeys by
easy and safe access to public transport
interfaces and by adequate storage
facilities for cycles.
• Provide built-in facilities for the
carriage of cycles on trains, trams and
Cycle parking
• Provide quality cycle parking at
educational and other public
establishments, leisure facilities, major
trip generators and public transport
• Encourage public and private
organisations to provide cycle parking
at or near their premises for staff,
customers and visitors.
Traffic signals and signs
• Adopt traffic signals to cater for
pedestrian and cyclists’ flows and
• Design urban road signs not only for
drivers but equally for pedestrians and
cyclists with easy-to-read street names
and appropriate distances.
Road lighting and
other conditions
• Consider not only the drivers but also
the needs of pedestrians and cyclists in
the design of lighting for main streets
and areas dense with walkers and
• Use lighting effectively to make
pedestrian precincts and cycle routes
safe, inviting and pleasurable.
• Keep pedestrian and cycle ways clean of
dirt, rubbish, snow and ice by
upgrading their maintenance status.
Vehicle design
• Promote bicycle design that improves
the visibility of cyclists.
• Encourage vehicle design that permits
cycle transport.
• Discourage the design of heavy duty
vehicles and cars with aggressive bull
bars and other gimmicks conducive to
increased accident risk for pedestrians
and cyclists.
Walking and
cycling audit
• Establish auditing procedures for
walking and cycling to ensure that the
needs of pedestrians and cyclists are
considered at key stages of all land use,
highway and other relevant
development schemes.

Page 23
Developing and maintaining a pro-
walking and cycling infra-
structure requires sufficient
funding in annual budgets of national and
local transport authorities. The local
funding is critical in order to provide the
proper facilities in places where most
people live, work and spend their leisure
time. It is important to secure a fixed, e.g.
one third, proportion of the total annual
infrastructure budget for the development
and maintenance of walking and cycling
Further funding can be obtained by
establishing mutual ownership between
the collaborators in the development of
walking and cycling. Important potential
contributors are the cycling industry,
public transport providers, insurance
companies and major employers.

Page 24
The real potential of walking and
cycling in promoting health and
sustainable environment is only
just emerging. In order for all involved
parties to understand and accept its
significance, vigorous and persistent
advocacy and lobbying is needed by the
key HEPA promoters. Some of the general
principles in doing this are:
• advocacy and lobbying need to be part
of the political sphere;
• successful lobbying needs a network of
collaborating partners;
• media is a major force in influencing
peoples’ attitudes and behaviour;
• pro-walkers and cyclists need to
penetrate into all sectors of life;
• the case for walking and cycling must
be based on reliable research evidence.
Monitoring and evaluation
procedures must be integrated
into the walking and cycling
strategy. Monitoring and evaluation must
be closely linked to the strategic goals with
measurable target indicators. They provide
evidence to assess the efficacy, cost-
effectiveness and feasibility of the adopted
strategies and actions. Indicators for
monitoring need to be incorporated into
existing information gathering systems.

Page 25
British Medical Association. Road transport and health. BMA, 1997.
Cyclists’ Touring Club. More bikers – Policy into best practice.
Godalming: CTC, 1995.
Dora C, Phillips M, (eds). Background document on transport,
environment and health. Copenhagen: World Health Organisation.
Regional Office for Europe, 1999.
Directorate-General for Passenger Transport. The Dutch Bicycle Master
Plan: description and evaluation in an historical context. The Hague:
Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, 1999.
Foster C. Guidelines for national health-enhancing physical activity
promotion programmes. Tampere: UKK Institute, 2000 (in press).
Health Education Authority. Making T.H.E links: integrating sustainable
Transport, Health and Environmental policies: A guide for local
authorities and health authorities. London: Health Education Authority,
US Department of Health and Human Services. A report of the Surgeon
General, Physical Activity and Health, Atlanta, GA, 1996.
Vuori I, Oja P. The health potential of physical activity through transport
by walking and cycling. A scientific review prepared for the Charter on
transport, environment and health, 1999.
WALCYNG. How to enhance WALking and CYCling instead of shorter
car trips and to make these modes safer. Lund: University of Lund, 1998.
World Health Organisation. Charter on transport, environment and
health. Centre for Urban Health, Europe, WHO, 1999.

Page 26
Selected parts of
the Dutch Bicycle Master Plan
1. An example of a successful strategy
Step 1.
Dealing with the source
This means clean and efficient vehicles, limiting land use for infrastructure and limiting
vehicle access to towns and areas of natural interest.
Step 2.
Reducing and managing mobility
This requires shorter distances between places where people live, work, shop and spend
their free time. It will be necessary to increase the price of mobility.
Step 3.
Improving the alternatives to the car
In terms of passenger transport this means the bicycle, public transport and carpooling.
Step 4.
Providing selective accessibility by road
All places should not always be totally accessible to all modes of transport.
Step 5.
Strengthening the foundations
This involves communications, government co-operation at all levels, finance,
enforcement and research.

Page 27
2. An example of target setting
The universal objective: “Promoting bicycle use while simultaneously increasing bicycle
safety and appeal”.
Spearhead 1:
The switch from the car to the bicycle
Primary target: An increase of 3.5 million passenger kilometres by bicycle by the year 2010
in relation to 1986, resulting in a contribution of 8.75 per cent to the desired reduction in
the growth of car use.
Spearhead 2:
The switch from the car to the public transport + bicycle
Primary target: An increase in train transport of 1.5 billion passenger kilometres (15 per
cent) in 2010 in relation to 1990, by means of improving the transport chain of public
transport and the bicycle.
Spearhead 3:
Cyclist safety
Primary targets: Fifteen per cent fewer cyclist fatalities in 1995 than in 1986 and 50 per
cent fewer in 2010. Ten per cent fewer injured cyclists in 1995 than in 1986 and 40 per
cent fewer in 2010.
Spearhead 4:
Bicycle parking facilities and theft prevention
Primary target: A substantially lower number of bicycle thefts in 2000 in relation to 1990.
Spearhead 5:
Primary targets: In 1995 bicycle policy is an integral part of all traffic and transport plans
carried out by the state, provinces, municipalities and transport regions. The transfer of
knowledge in 1995 is completed with regard to the results of the pilot and model projects.
3. An example of communication messages
many trips are short: 70 per cent of all trips made in the Netherlands are shorter
than 7.5 kilometres;
the bicycle is the most efficient mode of transport for many short trips and
inexpensive at that;
cyclists experience reliable arrival times and no traffic congestion;
cycling is good for staying in shape and is relaxing;
cycling, as an individual mode of transport, offers privacy; the bicycle is always
available and takes you from door to door;
it does not rain quite as often in the Netherlands as is commonly believed.

Page 28
Decision-makers of direct target groups
(municipalities and provinces, public transport
operators, the business community and institutions):
cycling is an important mode of transport; 28 per cent of all trips in the
Netherlands are covered by bicycle (48 per cent by car, 17 per cent on foot, 5 per
cent by public transport);
practically everyone cycles; young and old, men and women, rich and poor;
there is an abundance of potential for more bicycle use: people say that bicycle use
may be stimulated at the expense of car traffic; motorists say that nearly half of
those short car trips in the city and village could have been made by bicycle without
any inconvenience;
bicycle use in transport to and from the train and regional transport can improve
the efficiency of the combined use of public transport and the bicycle considerably,
and can increase the use thereof as an alternative to long car trips;
cycling is clean; if half of all short urban trips had been made by bicycle it would
have reduced the CO2 emissions by approximately half of the reduction that would
have been achieved through the effective reduction of speed limits on highways
from 120 to 100 km/hr;
cycling creates no noise pollution;
bicycle routes do not split up urban and rural areas;
bicycles take up little space, both when being ridden as well as when parked;
bicycle traffic and bicycle parking facilities are inexpensive in comparison to
facilities for car traffic and public transport; the infrastructure for bicycle traffic
costs an average of two to three cents per kilometre cycled, while every kilometre
covered by a passenger in urban public transport costs around forty cents subsidy
on average just to cover shortages on operation costs;
cyclists form an important group of shoppers; they spend less money per visit on
average, but visit shops more frequently.

Page 29
The UK Government targets for health improvement and sustainable transport
Coronary heart disease and stroke
Reduce death rate in people under 75
(and related diseases)
by at least two fifths
Reduce the death rate from cancer
amongst people under 75 by at least one
Reduce death rate from all accidents by at
least one fifth and serious injuries by at
least one tenth
Mental health
Reduce death rate from suicide and
undetermined injury by at least one fifth
Air quality
Achieve national air quality objectives on
benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon
monoxide, lead and nitrogen dioxide,
ozone, sulphur dioxide and particulates.
Achieve national target for CO2
reduction in the local transport plan
Road safety
Local targets to be set in road safety
strategy for 2005
Traffic reduction
Local targets to be considered under the
local transport plans
Targets to be set in the National Walking
Strategy, due 1999
To double 1996 levels of cycle use by
2002, and again by 2012